Many key granting organizations, like NSF, NIH, NEH and more, now require submitters to include a Data Management Plan as part of their application. These plans outline what steps the applicant will take to collect, safeguard, archive, and make available the data used for the research in question.
The particular requirements of a data management plan will vary among funding agencies, so it is best to always consult the agency. However, there are a few attributes that are common to all data management plans, including:
National Science Foundation (NSF)
FAQ's about Data Management and Sharing
Data Management Plan Requirements by Directorate
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)