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Research Guides

Dissertations and Theses


The library's format requirements are designed to work with a variety of scholarly conventions and citation styles across the disciplines. Check with your degree program, advisor, or dissertation committee to find out if a particular citation style is required for theses or dissertations.

Citation Styles

Citation Managers

Citation managers allow you to save and organize references and citations you gather during research. You can import citations from databases such as JSTOR, Humanities Full-Text, or  Academic Search Premier or manually enter citations. You can attach pdfs and images to the citations as well. They also generate bibliographies and footnotes. The Graduate Center supports Zotero and Refworks. Links and descriptions are below. If you want to have an introduction to any or all of the citation managers make an appointment here.

How to Cite a Dissertation or Thesis

APA (7th ed)

A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive. Include a publication number after the title, if available. Use bracketed text with "Doctoral dissertation" or "Master's Thesis" (without quotes) and degree-granting institution, separated with a comma. Include the database or repository name. Only include a URL if no login is required. Read more on APA Style Online.

Doctoral dissertation with ProQuest publication number:

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.


Doctoral dissertation in an institutional repository:

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository.


Chicago (17th Ed. Notes & Bibliography)

Titles of theses and dissertations appear in quotation marks—not in italics; otherwise, they are cited like books. The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography. Only include a URL if there is no login required. If retrieved from a database, include the database title and publication number, if available. Read more at CMOS 17 Online, 14.215: Theses and Dissertations.


1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.


Shortened note:

Bibliography entry: