A great place to begin research into U.S. Census Data is Baruch College Library's comprehensive guide to using U.S. Census Data.
Use the guide to learn about Census datasets "that can be used for socio-economic, demographic, and business analysis." From the guide you can also access current and historical U.S. Census data and see options for mapping data and zeroing in on neighborhood-level Census data.
Also see Baruch College's Demography Research Guide for help "finding sources for demographic theories and methods (articles and books) as well as materials (raw and refined data)."
Consult the following GC guides for tips on finding and using data in your research:
The Reference Guide to Data Sources by Julia Bauder (ALA Editions, 2014) is a valuable reference tool for finding major and minor U.S. and world sources of data on virtually any subject.
Topics include Agriculture and Food, Climate, Crime, Earth Sciences, Economics, Education, Energy, Labor, Real Estate, Trade and Tariffs, Health and Health Care, Political Science, Elections, War and Peace, Public Opinion Surveys, Transportation, People, and more.
If you need to visualize and organize geographic data, the Baruch College Library's Geospatial Data Librarian has an excellent research guide that will help you get started: Geographic Information Systems Research Guide.
Note that links to any subscription resources will require Baruch Library Network Credentials. GC-affiliated researchers should search for those sources through the GC Library.